عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Political theories which look with various and general approach at the advent of governments, conditions of the rulers, Purposes and ligitimacy of the governments, can be studied in both religious and extrareligious fields, utilizing specific resources in each field. Among Islamic sources, Ali's(A) sayings and life-history has particular significance owing to his mastery over the Qur'an and his commitment ot the Qur'an in all dimensions of his individual and social life.
According to Ali's(A) perception of the Qur'an, a religious state has a "God - vicegeral" identity, and the ruler, due to possessing certain specialities, is the vicegerent of God on earth. This attitude considers the emergence of government as simultaneous with prophetic mission and the revelation of the Qur'an, and regards proards the Prophet's movement a step in the direction of establishing governments and rules. From the viewpoint of Imam Ali(a.s) the governor's awareness, moralism, and religiousness must be higher than all people of society. In view of God-vicegerency, providing security for society, provision of public welfare, execution of Divine laws, Training human beings, and supperssing disturbances are among duties of the rulers and their assistants. And the origin of political legitimacy is the merits present in the leader and the functionaries, and the realization of the goals of the government. Subordination to the state and people's dutifulness are sources of national authority. Regarding Imam Ali's(a.s) statements on chapters of political theoris in the Qur'an, it is concluded that the theory of God-vicegerency is undoubtedly different from other political theories and has no similarity with the theory of "social convention", "theocracy", etc.