عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
In his introduction, the author of the present article seeks to figure out the secret of the martyrdom of al-Shahīd al-Awwal. In this relation, he explores into the political, social, and religious conditions of the era this Shahīd lived and unveils the anti-Shi‘īte strangulation in the rule of Mamālīk (a dynasty of Egyptian rulers), and finally regards religious bigotry and political accusation as effective in his martyrdom. In the main part of the article, the author proceeds to talk about the Shahīd's political action and theorizing and recounts his political components which include basing elections on being more meritorious, which in turn would yield to meritocracy in different levels of the governance. Of the merits, justice seems significant in the Shahīd's sight. In the second and final part, the writer explains al-Shahīd al-Awwal's viewpoint on political participation, which is dividable into four types: protective, supportive, and wilā’ī (through guardianship of the jurist) participation in despotic ruling systems.