عنوان مقاله [English]
From among the basic questions concerning morality is the reason why one should abide by moral obligations. In response to this question, three normative theories – in various versions – have been set forth: “excellence-oriented”, “duty-centered”, and “result-oriented”. The result-oriented consider the moral objective of living as achievement of benefit. In response to the question as to who should enjoy the result of a moral act, they present two different approaches: self-orientation (personal benefits) and other-orientation (providing benefits for others).
By studying the Qur’an, we find out that the Qur’an’s viewpoint is compatible with moral self-orientation and consistent with humanistic and teleological principles, the Qur’an’s moral training styles, and psychological data. Of course, a great part of the Qur’an’s moral obligations, such as alms-giving, self-denial, reconciliation among believers, compassion, forgiveness, keeping ties of kinship, rights of humankind, etc. would manifest in society, which, at a surface glance, brings to mind the other-orientation theory, but with deliberation and in-depth consideration of the Qur’an’s verses collectively, it would become obvious that the most important pivotal point of the Qur’an’s moral doctrines is utilizing one’s self-orientation toward other-orientation, sociability, and altruism and by relying on this principle, they would instigate the most driving forces in their addressees toward other-orientation and altruism.